A Helicopter View of Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a public cloud service provider that provides "Pay per Use/Pay as you go" on-demand computing services in the cloud. What it essentially means is we can create a virtual machine on AWS; we can install, configure, secure, and harden operating system. In fact we can perform all actions that we normally do in traditional data center.

To put it in more simple terms, assume utility services such as LPG (GAS), Electricity, or Water supply services. We pay for this services as we use them. We don't worry about how they will be managed as we trust Government or any such authority. In case of Cloud computing, consider cloud service providers as such authority. However they are private but to remain in market they will provide professional services which have all legal and regulator dimensions covered. Most of the customers are bound to legality and compliance when it comes to data storage or network connectivity also. Cloud service providers provide all such facilities.

To know more about What is Cloud Computing and Service Models visit following articles:

Virtualisationand its Evolution over the Years
Conversationsbetween Fairies and TechnoBuddy: What is Cloud Computing
Conversationsbetween Fairies and TechnoBuddy: Cloud Models
What isCloud Computing, Service Models and Deployment Models

A quick Timeline of AWS Announcements:

Timeline of AWS Announcements
So, let's understand how this agile, scalable, highly available, fault tolerant and pay as you use model is beneficial to end user based on the services it provides:

Amazon EC2: A virtual Server. a web service that provides elastic computing (Linux and Windows) capacity with pay as you use model
Amazon EC2 Container Registry: Fully managed Docker container registry service that is used to store, manage, and deploy Docker container images
Amazon EC2 Container Service: Container management service to run, stop, and manage Docker containers on a cluster of EC2 instances in other words EC2 with Docker.
AWS Elastic Beanstalk: Platform as a Service to deploy and manage applications in the AWS cloud with automatically managed scaling, load balancing, and health monitoring. (Supports Java, .Net, PHP etc.)
AWS Lambda: a web service that run back-end code on AWS cloud
Auto Scaling: a web service that launch or terminate Amazon EC2 instances automatically considering user-defined policies, schedules, and health monitoring
Elastic Load Balancing: a web service that distributes incoming traffic by detecting unhealthy instances
Amazon VPC: a web service that allows to create AWS instances in user defined virtual network. Isolated resources can be created in a Virtual Data center

Storage & Content Delivery
Amazon S3: Simple Storage Service is a scalable and durable object based Storage to store flat files
Amazon CloudFront: Content Delivery Network Service to cache files for a faster delivery
Amazon EBS:
Amazon EFS (preview): Elastic File Storage or NAS in Cloud. We can consider it as a block level centralized storage for EC2 instances.
Amazon Glacier: Low cost and durable service for data backup and archival or offline storage
AWS Import/Export: Import Export service provides easy way to transfer bulk or large amount of data to AWS by sending Hard disk to AWS
AWS Storage Gateway: It connect on premise software with AWS storage infrastructure

Amazon RDS: Relational Database Services for MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle, PostgreSQL, etc.
AWS Schema Conversion Tool:
Amazon DynamoDB:  Amazon's NOSQL service for non relational database service
Amazon ElastiCache: Caching in Cloud for Databases
Amazon Redshift: Data warehousing service with better performance
AWS Database Migration Service: DMS for migrating or converting databases in AWS

Amazon VPC: a web service that allows to create AWS instances in user defined virtual network. Isolated resources can be created in a Virtual Data center
AWS Direct Connect:  It provides a way to connect to AWS without using Internet for security purpose.
Amazon Route 53: It is a DNS service from AWS and 53 is port number on which DNS works hence it is Route53

Developer Tools
AWS CodeCommit: It is a version control service to manage Git repositories in the AWS cloud
AWS CodeDeploy: It helps to automate the deployment of applications to Amazon EC2 instances and / or to update the applications
AWS CodePipeline: It is a useful service in DevOps era that helps to achieve continuous delivery
AWS Tools & SDKs: SDKs, IDE Toolkits, and Command Line Tools for developing and managing applications

Management Tools
Amazon CloudWatch: To monitor AWS resources and the applications in real time
AWS CloudFormation: It allows to create and provision AWS infrastructure deployments in automated manner for standardization and reusability
AWS CloudTrail: It provides audit related information for AWS resources and useful in troubleshooting
AWS Command Line Interface: A standard interface for interacting with all components of AWS
AWS Config: It is a managed service that provides details about configuration, its history and other details
AWS Management Console: It is a console used to manage all AWS resources in a simplified manner
AWS OpsWorks:  It is a configuration management service using Chef  for AWS
AWS Service Catalog: AWS Service Catalog is more useful for IT administrators to create, manage, and publish portfolios of approved applications (servers, databases, websites, etc.) to end users
Trusted Advisor: It provides advisory services for saving costs, enhancing security, etc.
AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell: It helps to manage AWS resources from Windows Powershell. It is a wrapper over
functionality exposed by the AWS SDK for .NET

Security & Identity
Identity & Access Management: a web service that helps end users to manage users, groups, and permissions along with security credentials; multi factor authentication
AWS Certificate Manager: It is used to manage, provision, and deploy SSL/TLS certificates on AWS-managed resources
AWS Directory Service: A managed service to connect existing on-premises Microsoft Active Directory (AD Connector) and AWS services
Amazon Inspector (preview): To analyze the behavior of the applications in AWS environment for security
AWS CloudHSM: Safe cryptographic key storage for end users with HSMs in the AWS cloud
AWS KMS: Encryption and key management service scaled for the cloud
AWS WAF: It is used to monitor web requests for Amazon CloudFront distributions and restrict or allow access based on the defined policies or configuration

Amazon EMR: a web service that uses Hadoop to process large amount of data or Big data
AWS Data Pipeline: a web service that to automate the movement and transformation of data based on data driven workflows
Amazon Elasticsearch Service: a web service that is used to deploy, operate, and scale an open-source search and analytics engine that provides high availability, security configurations, data durability, etc.
Amazon Kinesis: a web service that provides a platform for streaming data on AWS
Amazon Machine Learning: a web service that for Developers for using Machine Learning
Amazon Redshift: Cost-effective Data warehouse service that is useful in analyzing data using existing BI tools

Internet of Things
AWS IoT: It is a service that facilitates bi-directional communication between Internet-connected things in a secure manner

Application Services
Amazon API Gateway: To create, manage, maintain, and monitor APIs
Amazon AppStream: It is managed service thats streams input and output between application and devices
Amazon CloudSearch: It is managed service to install manage and scale search solution
Amazon Elastic Transcoder: It is managed service that helps to convert media files from source to destination formats
Amazon FPS: Amazon Flexible Payments Service (FPS) will be discontinued effective June 1, 2015.
Amazon SES: It is a managed Simple Mail Service for sending and receiving mails
Amazon SNS: It is a managed service to send and receive notifications
Amazon SQS: It is a managed service for decoupling infrastructure - messaging queue service
Amazon SWF: It is a managed Simple Workflow Service to coordinate across distributed components

SDKs & Toolkits
AWS SDK for Go: It provides a Go API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for Java: It provides a Java API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for JavaScript (Node.js): It provides a JavaScript-Node.js API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for JavaScript (Browser): It provides a JavaScript-Browser API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for .NET: It provides a .Net API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for PHP: It provides a PHP API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for Python (Boto 3): It provides a Python API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS SDK for Ruby: It provides a Ruby API to build application on AWS Resources
AWS Toolkit for Eclipse: It provides a plugin for an Eclipse IDE to develop, debug, and deploy applications on AWS Resources
AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio: It provides a plugin for a Visual Studio IDE to to develop, debug, and deploy applications on AWS Resources

AWS Global Infrastructure:
AWS Global Infrastructure
Source: https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/global-infrastructure/
12 Regions and 33 Availability Zones (https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/global-infrastructure/).
Each region represents geographical area.
Each Availability zone or AZ is nothing but a data center.
Each region contains 2 or more AZs

Edge locations are CDN Endpoints:

Asia Pacific: Chennai, India, Hong Kong, China (2), Manila, the Philippines, Melbourne, Australia, Mumbai, India, Osaka, Japan, Seoul, Korea (2), Singapore (2), Sydney, Australia, Taipei, Taiwan, Tokyo, Japan (2)
Europe / Middle East / Africa: Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2), Dublin, Ireland, Frankfurt, Germany (3), London, England (3), Madrid, Spain, Marseille, France, Milan, Italy, Paris, France (2), Stockholm, Sweden, and Warsaw, Poland
North America: Ashburn, VA (3), Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, Dallas/Fort Worth, TX (2), Hayward, CA, Jacksonville, FL, Los Angeles, CA (2), Miami, FL, New York, NY (3), Newark, NJ, Palo Alto, CA, San Jose, CA, Seattle, WA, South Bend, IN, St. Louis, MO
South America: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil

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